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Bibliotheque botanique


Ca(alot|ii<- !V"

Tri'VlCJ/t Jft:

Li\r(>s provt'iumt dc In hihliollirfiiic hotiiiiique (TEmile BurnaK I8-2.S-I9-20), inseivs en orlohiv 1920 (Inns la i)il)li()Uie(|n(' dii (loiiservatoirt' l)()tniii([ne de (!( I?i






Senior Assistant, Department of Botany, British Museum (Natural History).















E. G. Baker, F.L.S.

Ethel S. Barton.

E. A. L. Batters, LL.B.,

F.L.S. Arthur Bennett, F.L.S. V. H. Blackjian, B.A., F.L.S. James Britten, F.L.S. G. L. Bruce, M.A. Cedric Bucknall, Mus.Bac. Harold J. Burkill. I. H. Burkill, M.A., F.L.S. J. W. Carr, M.A., F.L.S. C. B. Clarke, F.E.S. J. H. Davie s.

H. N. Dixon, M.A., F.L.S. G. C. Druce, M.A., F.L.S. S. T. Dunn, B.A., F.L.S. Karl Fritsch. David Fry. Alfred Fryer. Antony Gepp, M.A., F.L.S. John Gerard, S.J. Henry Groves, F.L.S. James Groves, F.L.S. H. C. Hart, B.A. W. P. Hiern, M.A., F.L.S. E. M. Holmes, F.L.S. A. B. Jackson. Thomas Kirk, F.L.S. H. W. Lett, M.A. AuGUSTiN Ley, M.A. E. F. Linton, M.A. W. R. Linton, M.A.

Arthur Lister, F.L.S. Symers M. Macvicar. E. S. Marshall, M.A., F.L.S. Spencer lk M. Moore, F.L.S. G. E. M. Murray, F.E.S.

E. P. Murray, M.A., F.L.S. Greenwood Pim, M.A., F.L.S. A. B. Eendle, M.A., F.L.S. May Eoberts.

F. A. Eogers.

W. MoYLE Eogers, F.L.S.

C. E. Salmon.

E. S. Salmon.

James Saunders.

E. Schlechter.

E. F. Shepherd.

W. A. Shoolbred, M.E.C.S.

Annie L. Smith.

A. Somerville, B. Sc.

Otto Staff, Ph.D.

E. J. Tatum.


Frederick Townsend, M.A.,

F.L.S. C. H. Waddell, B.D. John Weathers.

G. S. West, A.E.C.S. W. West, F.L.S. James W. White.

W. Whitwell, F.L.S. J. Lloyd Williams. W. P. Winter. J. Medley Wood, A.L.S.

Directions to Binder.

Tabs. 365-370 Tab. 371


., 373 Tabs. 374-380

to face page 1 257 289 369 417

Portrait of Charles Card.\le Babington title Or all may be placed together at the end of the volume.


G S.West adna-tcLsl. R.MorgaxL In.th .

West Nevrman imp-

A Ft- 1 c a/n Al g 36 .





By W. West, F.L.S., and G. S. West, A.R.C.S.

(Plates 365-369.)

The algfB which form the subject of this paper were collectecl some forty years ago by Dr. Welwitsch during his eight years' residence in Angola. They are chiefly from the latter region, but a few are from Benguella and Sierra Leone. The specimens are all dried ones, and for the most part are mounted on paper. Portions of all had to be soaked out for investigation, the results of which have been very gratifying, as by this means, after a detailed exami- nation, many of the smaller species have been observed. These latter, however, had not been collected, but, independently entangled among other conspicuous species, had been collected with them. The Desmids had practically all been unconsciously obtained in this way, few, if any, collections having been made from places in which one would expect to find Desmids in abundance ; and yet about 130 fine species (including fifty undescribed onesj have been found as intruders amongst other algfe. From these mere samples one is led to wonder as to the richness of the Desmid-flora of Tropical Africa.

Very little is known concerning the Freshwater Algre of Africa, only a few small scattered papers having as yet been published ; and this extensive collection one in which almost all the groups are represented very considerably enlarges our knowledge of the geographical distribution of these plants. The Diatoms, which are numerous in a few of the gatherings, are left for future investigation.

At the time these algfe were collected the great majority of the species were as yet undescribed. They form part of the Welwitsch collection deposited in the British Museum, and the numbers after the species refer to the numbers on the sheets of this collection. A few of the species can hardly be considered as freshwater ones, but as they were in the collection we have included them.

It is interesting to note that the earliest collection of algse made in Africa has been found to be more extensive and representative

Journal of Botany. Vol. 85. [Jan. 1897.] b


than any hitherto described. The species are localized under the various districts of the region, exactly as indicated by Welwitsch on his herbarium labels.


I. Batrachosperme^.

1. Batrachospermum Eoth (1800).

1. B. angolense, sp. n. Lemanea anf/oIejisis'Welw.'M^. Name

with observation on gross characters of living plant ; the following

description is ours :

B. subcartilagineum, fronde base scutatim radiata, vivum viridi- Cferulescens, gracillimum, mox flaccidum, more Floridearum non- nullis viscoso-collapsum, chartte parum adh^erens ; fila primaria 5-8 cm.; ramis numerosissimis solitariis biuisve (raro ternatis), ramis ordinis secundi tertiique numerosis et delicatissimis ; axe primario e serie singula cellularum magnarum formato et seriebus multis cellularum appressarum multe minor um vestito ; ramulis lateralibus densissimis et per axem totum regulariter dispersis, e cellulis elliptico-globosis circiter 3 formatis, ramulis sublongioribus ad nodos subnumerosos, ramis juvenibus cum ramulis principaliter ad nodos approximatos. Diam. fil. prim. (c. ramul. lat.) 150-158 /x, ad nod. 266-308 jj. ; diam. ax. fil, prim. 62 /x, ad nod. 100 fj..

Pungo Andongo. Freq. ast unico loco ad rupes submersas in rivulo de Cabondo socialis cum Podostemaceis ; med. Febr. 1857. No. 1.

This may well be taken at first sight for a Lemanca with very numerous nodes, the short lateral branches which clothe the axes of the filaments being so very dense and of such uniform length that a surface view appears almost parenchymatous. The filaments are not much thicker at the nodes than between them.

2. B. nigrescens, sp. n. B. l^ete viride in vivo, exsiccata nigrescens ; fila primaria circiter 7-10 cm., ad saxa graminumque culmos demersas adnata base radiata ; ramis solitariis, binis ternisve, subpenicillatis, numerosissimis et ordinum trium, ultimis delicatissimis; axe primario ut in B. amiolense sed seriebus exteri- oribus cellularum numerosioribus ; ramulis lateralibus brevissimis, e cellulis rotundato-quadratis 1-3 formatis, longioribus et confertis- simis ad nodos numerosissimos, uodo superiori ad nodum inferiorem gradatim brevioribus. Diam. fil. prim. (c. ramul. lat.) 137-141 /x, ad nod. 216-233 //; diam. ax. fil. prim. 86 /x, ad nod. 112 /x.

Pungo Andongo. Freq. ast unico loco in brachio lateral! flum. Cuanza prope ejus cataract, ad Condo ; Mar. 1857. No. 2.

This is a rather noteworthy species, being so much branched that in well-developed specimens the branches aggregate to form narrow pencils ; the plant when dry is almost black, and looks like some of the marine Floridea.

8. B. gracillimum, sp. n. B. multe gracillimum et delicatis- simum, non radiatum, viridi-flavescens in vivo, subcferuleo-viride exsiccata, basi nudiusculum ; fila primaria 10-15 cm. (interdum e filo breviori et crassiori nata) ; ramis ordinum duorum, iis ordinis


primarii longis et uumerosis, iis ordinis secundi brevibus sparsisque ; axe primario e seriebus multis uuiformibus parallelis cellularum elongatarum constituto, leviter dilatato ad nodos; ramulis laterali- bus brevibus uniformibusque, nonnullis leviter ramosis, per axem totum regulariter (et non dense) dispersis ; fasciculis densis globosis magnis ramnlorum ramosissimorum e nodo bine inde (3-5 ram.) ortis. Diam. fil. prim. (c. ramul. lat.) 150-166 //, ad nod. 250- 275 fji ; diam. ax. fil. prim. 42-59 fj., ad nod. 66-91 /x ; diam. fascic. glob, ramul. 208-480 /x.

Pungo Andongo. Ad lapides submersas in rivulo de Tangue; May 1857. No. 3.

This very beautiful species is characterized by its numerous elongate and delicate branches, which bear the short uniform lateral branches evenly without interruption along their whole length. The globose clusters of lateral branches, which are developed on every 7th to 12th node, are no doubt connected with the fructification ; their terminal cells are of a different form to the others, being larger and mostly subglobose. The axis of the filament does not pass through the centre of this dense mass of branches, but the attachment of the globular mass is at one side of the node from which they arise.

4. B. huillense (Welw. MS., name only). B. subradiatum, in vivo hiete viride, extra aquam mox violaceum, exsiccata nigresceus ; fila primaria rubra, dense ramosa ; ramis ordinum trium vel quat- tuor, ultimis plerumque geminatis, brevibus et confertissimis, brevi- oribus apices versus ; axe primario e seriebus parallelis numerosis appositis cellularum formato serie centrali cellularum multe majorum ; ramulis lateralibus brevibus deusisque plus minusve uniformibus, ad nodos densioribus, axe juxta supra nodos sub- glabro; ordine iutermedio ramornm submouiliformi, ramis juveui- bns nodis approximatis submoniliformibusque. Diam. fil. prim, (c. ramul. lat.) 191-325 //, ad nod. 275-400 /u.; diam. ax. fil. prim. 125-275 /x, ad nod. 175-325 fx.

Huilla. Freq. ad riipes lapidesque submersas in rivulis prope Lopollo; May 1860. No. 4. Also fragments from No. 187.

This species is well marked by its peculiar and dense branching, specimens dried on paper appearing hypnoid. It reminds one of a delicate B. atnun Harv., except as to its branching. This species and B. ijracilliinuin adhere very well to paper, while B. nujrescens and B. aiujolense adhere but slightly.


1. HiLDENBRANDTiA Nardo (1845).

1. H. RivuLARis (Liebm.) J. Ag. Species Ahjar. ii. 495 ; Eabeuh. Fl. I'Au-iip. Ah/, iii. 408. Diam. cell. 3*5-4 /x.

Goluugo Alto. Macalis magnis belle sanguiueis rupes siliceo- arenosas juxta Fontem de Capopa oruat ; Sept. 1855. No. 149.

2. H. ANGOLENsis Welw. MS. ; name with partial description ; the following description is ours :

B 2


H. roseo-purpurea, saxa silicacea rivulorum colore amoenissime roseo ornans ; cellulis quadratis, interdum subquadratis sed semper angularibus, in seriebus verticalibus ordinatis. Diam. cell. 3-5-5 //.

Golungo Alto. Ad silices in rivulis sylv. primit. de Quibanga pr. Sange, June 1857. No. 150 (I. and II.). Welwitsch remarks that the rocks were of a most beautiful rose-colour for half an hour's walk along the stream.

CHLOROPHYCE^. III. (Edogoniace.e. 1. BULBOCH^TE Ag. (1817). 1. B. ANGULOSA Wittr. & Lund, in Wittr. Prodr. Monoy. (Edog. 45(1874). Crass, cell, veget. 12-5-15 /j.; altit. l^-2i-plo major ; crass, oogon. 40-44 /x ; altit. 35-40 /x ; crass, naunandr. G-7-5 /x ; altit- 23-27 /x; crass, audrosporang, 10-12 /x ; altit. 9-5-13-5 //. Huilla. In paludibus exsiccaudis ; April 1860. No. 176. In these African plants the oogonia were under the andro- sporangia, and were rotundo-rhomboid, with the superior margins straight (not retuse) ; the naunaudria were not epigynous, but scattered.

2. (Edogonium Link (1820) ; Wittr. em.

1. CE. CRYPTOPOEUM Wittr. Disjws. Q'Jdog. Suec. 19 (1870). Crass, cell, veget. 7*5 /x; altit. 3^-4i-plo major; crass, oospor. 22-23 IX ; altit. 21-22 /x.

Loanda. Represa do Maghelano pr. Boa vista ; Feb. 1854. No. 194.

2. (E. CEISPUM (Hass.) Wittr. Prodr. Monoy. (Edog. 10 (1874). Var. Uruguayense Magn. & Wille, Bidraq til Sydamerik. Alq.-ji.

39, t. ii. fig. 63 (1884). Crass, cell, veget. 13-5-15 /x; altit. 2i-o- plo major; crass, oogon. 31-34 /x ; altit. 28-32 /x ; crass, oospor. 28-32 fx ; altit. 27-31 yu.

Loanda. Represa do Maghelano pr. Boa vista, c. ffi. crypto- porum; Febr. 1854. No. 194.

3. CE. GRAciLLiMUM Wittr. & Lund, in Wittr. Prodr. Monoyr. (Edog. 15 (1874).

Forma major. Crass, cell, veget. 6-5-7 /x; altit. 3|— 6-plo major; crass, oogon. 20-23 /x ; altit. 32-35 /x ; crass, oospor. 17 /x ; altit. 24/*.

Huilla. In udis sylvaticis et apricis inter Moniuo et lac. Ivan- tala, c. Porpliyrosiphon Notarisii Kiitz. ; April 1860. No. 14.

4. CE. Itzigsohnii De Bary, Ueb. OH dog. und Bulb. 56, t. iii. fig. 29-32 (1864) ; Wittr. Prodr. Monogr. (Edog. 16.

Var. BiiNOR West, Notes on Scotch Freshw. Alg., Jonrn. Bot. April, 1893. Crass, cell, veget. 4-8-5-7 /x; altit. 5-8-plo major; crass, oogon. 21-29 /x ; altit. 17-30 /x ; crass, oospor. 13-5-18 ; altit. 13-18 /x.

Pungo Andongo. Freq. c. Scytonema myochroiis (Dillw.) Ag. var. chorograpldcum, temp. pluv. (i. e. Dec. usque Apr.) liete vege- tans, ad Pedras negras in summis rupibus ; Febr. 1857. No. 6.


The specimens were even a little smaller than those originally described from the Orkney Isles.

5. CE. huillense, sp. n. (tab. 365, figs. 7, 8). CE. monoicum (?)_; oogoniis singulis, subrhomboideis, augulis lateralibus mammiformi- bus, a vertice visis stellatis cum processubus sequalibus 8 ; oosporis globosis, oogonia non complentibus. Crass, cell, veget. 7*5 /a; altit. 4-5-plo major; crass, oogon. 24-26 /x ; altit. 24-26 /x ; crass, oospor. 17 /v. ; altit. 17 /x.

Huilla. In paludibus exsiccandis ; April 1860. No. 176.

The nearest species to this is <E. mammiferum Wittr. (Prodr. Monogr. (JbJdoi/. 16j, from which it difiers in having eight equal processes round the subrhomboid oogonia, and in the globose oospores.

6. (E. EoTHii (Le CI.) Pringsh. Beitr. zur Morph. d. (Edog. i. 69, t. V. fig. 4 (1858) ; Wittr. Prodr. Monn;/r. (Edog. 18.

Forma MAJOR. Crass, cell, veget. 8-5-10'5/^. ; altit. 3^-4i-plo major; crass, oogon. 25-30 //; altit. 19-25 /x: crass, naunandr. 4-5- 9-5 /x; altit. 8-5-ll'5 /x; crass. androsporang.7-5/x; altit. 9-5-11'5/x.

Pungo Andongo. Alga Ijete viridis parce vel submucosa, ad ramulosPodostemacearuminrivulis(Casalale); March 1857. No. 105.

The small obovate nannandria occurred singly or 2-4 on the under side of the oogonia.

7. CE. hormosporum, sp. n. (E. dioicum, nannandrium ; oogoniis 3-10 contiuuis, subglobosis vel ovato-ellipsoideis, apicem versus circumscissilibus ; oosporis subglobosis vel ellipsoideis, oogonia complentibus, membrana crassa glabraque ; cellulis sufful- toriis tumidis ; androsporangiis 11-15-cellularibus ; cellula termi- nali obtusa, iuterdum oogonium est ; nannandribus curvatis, 2-('?)-cellularibus, in cellulis suflultoriis sedentibus. Crass, cell, veget. 22-27 /x ; altit. 4-|-6-plo major ; crass, oogon. 48-56 /x ; altit. 56-75 /x ; crass, oospor. 46-54 /x; altit. 54-61 /x ; crass, nanuandr. 9-11*5 /x; altit. 47-54 /x; crass, androsporang. 18-19 /x ; altit. 21-24 /;..

Huilla. Alga lubrica, viridis, socialis cum Nltella sp. in stagnis pr. Catumba; April 1860. No. 189.

8. (E. Welwitschii, sp. n. CE. dioicum, macrandrium ; oogoniis singulis gemiuisve, tumidissimis, prope apicem circum- scissilibus ; oosporis globosis (vel raro subglobosis), pa^ne oogonia complentibus, membrana crassa glabraque ; filis masculis paullo gracilioribus quam femineis. Crass, cell, veget. (<?) 17-19 /x ; altit. 3-4-plo major; crass, cell, veget. ( $ ) 18-24 /x; altit. 2-3-plo major ; crass, oogon. 40-46 /x ; altit. 37-50 /x ; crass, oospor. 35-38-5 /x ; altit. 36-37 /x.

Libongo. Freq. ad margines flum. Lifune ; Sept. 1858. No. 204.

9. CE. TAPEiNOSPORUJi Wittr. Prodr. Monogr. (Edog. 36 (1874). Var. ANGOLENSE, var. n. Var. cellulis vegetativis paullo crassi-

oribus, oosporis oogonia complentibus. Crass, cell, veget. 3-8-4-5 /x ; altit. 5-6-plo major; crass, oogon. 18-19 /x ; altit. 13*5-15 /x.

Pungo Andongo. Ad latera boreal, et occid. de Pedra Songue, C. Scgtonema myochroiis var. chorographicwn Qi Dichnthrix (jijpsophUa ; April 1857. No. 12.


10. (E. LONDiNENSE Wittr. J. c. 39 (187-i). Forma oogoniis supra medium circumscissilibus, cellulis sufi'ultoriis saepe iuflatis. Crass, cell, veget. 12-5-13*5 /x; altit. 4-6-plo major; crass, oogon. 26-31 /x ; altit. 27-31 /x ; crass, oospor. 24-28 /x ; altit. 24-28 /x.

Pungo Audongo. In pascuis spongiosis breve graminosis juxta rapes gig. pr. Catete, sparsis c. BichotJirix fjijpsopldla; May 1857. No. 111.

11. CE. angustissimnm, sp. n. (E. monoicum (?) ; fills vege- tativis irregulariter flexis et angustissimis; oogoniis binis, transverse iuflatis ; oosporis transverse ellipticis, partem inflatam oogonii com- pleutibus, membrana glabra. Crass, cell, veget. 1-8-2 /x; altit. 7-14-plo major; crass, oogon. 9-5 /x ; altit. 10-5-14-5 /x ; crass, oospor. 9'5 /x ; altit. 6*5 /x.

Huilla. lu uligiuosis editioribus prope Humpata, Empalanca et Lopollo, plagas spougiosas unacum Eriocauloneis, Xyridibus et Utriculariis constituens ; May 1860. No. 15.

This species comes nearest to Gi. tenuissimum Hansg. (in Notarisia, 1888, 398), but differs in being narrower, in having longer cells, binate oogonia, and smaller oospores which completely fill the latter.

12. CEdogonium sp. Crass, cell, veget. 2-3-3-2 /x ; altit. 5-12- plo major.

Huilla. Epiphyticum in Zygncma sp., in paludibus exsiccandis ; April 1860. No. 176. This species may be a form of (E. tenuis- simum Hansg. with longer cells, or oi (E. minutissimum Gruu. (in Eabenh. Fl. Europ. Algar. hi. 352).

13. (Edogonium sp. Crass, cell, veget. 8*5 /x; altit. 6-7-plo major; crass, oogon. 24-30 /x ; altit. 26-33 /x ; crass, oospor. 23-29 /x ; altit. 23-29 /x.

Huilla. In uligiuosis editioribus prope Humpata, Empalanca, et Lopollo ; May 1860. No. 15. Insufficient for accurate determi- nation.

14. (Edogonium sp. Crass, cell, veget. 25-32 /x ; altit. 1^-3-plo major.

Mossamedes. Freq. in stagnis puris ad ripas flum. Bero; Aug. 1859. No. 190.

15. (Edogonium sp. Crass, cell, veget. 56-63 /x ; altit. 1-2-plo major.

Pungo Andongo. Stirps amcenissime viridis, ad limum justa rivulum Casalale crescens ; Febr. 1857. No. 106. Ad ramulos Podostemacearum in rivulis (Casalale) ; Mar. 1857. No. 105.

IV. Ulvace.e. 1. Enteeomorpha Link (1820) ; em. J. Ag. (1883),

1. E. WELWiTSCffli J. Ag. Till Algernes Systemat. vi. 143 (1883). Rntcromorpha sp. Welw. Phyc. Lusit. n. 289. Long, usque 4-5 mm. ; lat. 21-61 /x ; diam. cell. 5-ll'5 /x.

Loanda. Ad folia palmarum (Cocos nucif.) diutius in oceano agitata, prope Praia de Nazareth ; Febr. 1854. No. 29.


The occurrence of this species is noteworthy, as Welwitsch had previously collected it in Portugal on Scirpus maritimus.

2. E. TUBULosA Klitz. Tab, Phyc. vi. 32, f. 2. Long, usque 3-4 cm. ; lat. 60-270 // ; diam. cell. 8-21 fx.

Loanda. On a floating Adansonia diijitata on the shore of S. Jago, forming a green layer all over it , Nov. 1853. No. 31.

(To be continued.)


The Fungi included in the following list have heen sent to me at various times for identification or verification, or they have been collected by myself. Nine species (to which an asterisk is prefixed) are new to Britaui, and two genera Piptocephalis and Lizonia. For the discovery of the former we are indebted to C. F. Jenkin, Esq., Newport, Monmouth, who is specially to be congratulated for the interesting additions he has made to our too scanty records of Phycomycetes. The various species of Hyphomycetes I have ob- tained from the culture of material in the Botanical Laboratory of the British Museum, Cromwell Road. I have recorded in each case the district from winch the leaves, &c., were gathered. It is almost certain that most or indeed all of them are of frequent occurrence, but from their microscopic nature they have easily been overlooked by field- workers. '

Gonatohotrijs simplex has been found growing on decaying fruits of black bryony ; I got it growing very plentifully on the stalks and fruits of white bryony. The two hosts have something of the same habit of growth, which accounts for the appearance of the fungus.

'■'Peronospora Radii De Bary. On leaves of Chrysanthemum segetum. Dalton, Dumfriesshire, Aug. 1894, A. L. S.

Sporodinia grandis Link and Syzigites megalocarpus Ehrenb. On decaying fungi. Annan, Dumfriesshire, Aug. 1896. Rare.

"'■'Mortierella Rostafinskii Bref. On a dead fir-stump at Strathpefier, Ross-shire, N.B., Aug. 1896, Mr. Jenkin.

M. CANDELABRUM Van Tiegh. & Le Hon. On a decaying fungus. Strathpeffer, Aug. 1896, Mr. Jenkin. ,

'■'Syncephalis Cornu Van Tiegh. & Le Mon. On a patch of earth and moss. Newport, j\[r. Jenkin.

"^^ Piptocephalis Freseniana De Bary. Parasitic on Pilar ia on rabbit-dung. Strathpefier and Newport, Mr. Jenkin.

"■•'P. cYLiNDRospoRA Baiuicr. On a patch of earth and moss, along with Syncephalis. Newport, Mr. Jenkin.

*AcHYLA apiculata De Bary. On the mouths of Utricularia bladders. Strathpefier, Aug. 1896, Mr. Jenkin.


*LizoNiA EMPORiGONiA De Not, Oil the flower-heads of Pohjtrichum commune. Found by Mr, Lloyd WilUams on material m the laboratory of the Pharmaceutical Society.

Okdocephalum Preussii Sacc. On decaying herbaceous stalks, leaves, &c. Annan, Dumfriesshire, Aug. 1896, A. L. S.

Cephalosporium AcREiioNiUM Corda. On stalks of UmhellifercB, &c. Annan, Aug. 1896, A.L.S.

Ehinotrichum repens Preuss. On a stump. Newport, Oct. 1896, Mr. Jenkin.

BoTRYTis VULGARIS Fr. var. plebeja Fres. On sweet chestnuts. London, Nov. 1896, A. L. S.

Acrostalagmus cinnabarinus Corda. On leaves of CratcEijus Oxi/acantha. Bowness, Cumberland, Aug. 1896, A. L. S.

*A. albus Preuss. On stalks of Bryonia dioica from Cambridge, Nov. 1896, A.L.S.

Clonostachys Araucaria Corda. On stalks of Cratagus Oxy- acantha. Bowness, Cumberland, Aug. 1896, A.L. S.

GoNATOBOTRYS SIMPLEX Corda. On stalks of Bryonia dioica. Cambridge, Nov. 1896, A. L. S.

Cephalothecium candidum Bon. On herbaceous stalks. Annan, Aug. 1896. The plant is tinged with rose-colour; the conidiophores are frequently septate. A. L. S.

MucRospoEiuM sphseocephalum Sacc. On a stump. Newport, Oct. 1896, Mr. Jenkin.

*Periconia pycnospora Fres. On dead herbaceous leaves. Annan, Aug. 1896, A. L. S.

AcREMONiELLA PALLIDA Cke. & Mass. On dead herbaceous stalks, leaves, &c. Annan, Aug. 1896, A. L. S.

Stachybotrys alternans Bon. On packmg-straw from Edin- burgh. June, 1896. This plant subsequently covered the moist blotting-paper with a plentiful black growth. A.L. S.


By J. Lloyd Williams.

On July 18th, 1889, I happened to be botanizing on the Great Orme, Carnarvonshire. The day was very sunny and warm, and large numbers of humble-bees were gathering honey among the flowers of thistles, chicory, and particularly of Centaurea Scabiosa. The latter was visited chiefly by neuter Bomhus lapidurius, and I observed with surprise that many of the insects on alighting became quite inert and helpless. On watching more closely, the following facts were observed. The bee rapidly examined the florets one by one, leaving them immediately if they had no honey, but stoppiug some little time if honey was found. In the latter case it


invariably happened that the insect suddenly turned on its side, and moved the second pair of legs convulsively in the air ; some even turned on their backs, or rolled about on the capitula. After a time a few tried to fly away, but their wings seemed powerless to raise them into the air, so that they fell on the ground instead. Most of them, however, dragged themselves over the florets, greedily searching the same ones over and over again for honey.

I shut one of the bees thus affected in a tin box, and after about fifteen minutes opened the box. Close by was a large plant of Centaurea Scahiosa, on' which were five helpless bees. The one which had been imprisoned flew away with a loud buzzing noise, described a circle in the air about nine feet above the Centaurea, pounced down upon one of the flower-heads, and in a few seconds was as incapable as ever. On this day the above experiment was many times repeated with similar results.

On Sept. 8th, about six o'clock in the evening, I was botanizing in a part of South Carnarvonshire where Centaurea Scahiosa does not grow. A Bombus alighted on Scahiosa Succisa, and immediately became helpless. I placed it in my vasculum, putting with it a number of the flower-heads of Scahiosa, and opened the box at intervals of fifteen minutes for two hours. During the whole of that time the bee kept dragging itself from one flower to another, greedily searching the florets for honey, and repeatedly examining the same flowers. It took no notice of any attempts to drive it away further than to raise the second pair of legs, moving them aimlessly in the air. In its inability to fly, and its tendency to fall on one side, it behaved exactly like the bees on the Orme. When, however, the box was opened next morning, the bee had gone as far as it could from the flowers ; when put back upon them, it flew upon the window ; when caught again and prevented from leaving the flowers, it exhibited a most comical appearance of disgust, raising its head and its fore legs as high as it could above the plants, then precipitately hurrying away as soon as released. The greed and avidity shown by the insect the previous evening when persistently keeping its head in the florets, and its helplessness when tumbling about on the flower-heads, were in striking contrast to the dislike and even disgust shown by the same insect the next morning, and its vigorous efforts to fly away from the same flowers.

On Sept. 13th I was again on the Orme. A Bombus alighted on Centaurea nif/ra, and in two or three seconds showed the usual symptoms of incapacity. Ultimately it fell down to the ground, but in a few minutes it was able to fly again. '

The number of humble-bees observed getting intoxicated on C. Scahiosa was so large, and they behaved in a manner so similar to that of those described above, that it would be useless to quote my notes on each individual case observed. In every instance the bees became covered with pollen, and when taken away from the plant they soon recovered so as to be able to fly vigorously, but they alighted again on the first Centaurea available.

When these observations were first made, the following seemed to be the most striking facts :


(1) All the plants whose flowers produced this deleterious effect had capitula, and in the one on which ninety per cent, of the phe- nomena were observed the heads were very large.

(2) The bees in rolling helplessly over the flower-heads became most efl'ectually covered with pollen.

(3) When the insects rolled off the plant, they soon recovered their power of flight. They then flew to other plants of the same species, greedily searching for the substance that had produced this curious eftect upon them. Their whole behaviour showed clearly that this particular honey possessed a strong attraction for them.

(4) During the season mentioned above, the intoxication of humble-bees on Ceniaurea and Scabiosa was such a common occur- rence as to seem perfectly normal.

There could be no doubt whatever as to the effectiveness of the phenomenon in causing the cross-fertilization of the flowers. Both on account of the large amount of pollen carried on the bodies of the bees, and of the inevitable transfer of much of it to the stigmas, which would be brought about by the rolling and dragging of the insects over the tops of the florets, it might be said that the arrangement was far more effective than many of those recognized as normal.

The natural deduction then seemed to be that particular capitu- late flowers were normally cross-fertilized by the agency of insects which were habitually intoxicated by the honey secreted by the florets.

Before publishing any observations on the subject, it seemed desirable to secure a sufficient amount of the deleterious substance for examination, so I determined to wait another season for this purpose. Strange to say, however, five summers passed without my being able to observe an undoubted instance of the phenomenon, and, when it was observed, it was impossible to get the honey in sufficient quantity for examination. My inability to repeat the observation may have been due to want of opportunity : still, had it been as common as it had seemed at first to be, I ought to have seen it over and over again. It is true that towards the close of the season and on cold days it is a very common occurrence to find bees inert and helpless on flowers. When these are disturbed, they raise the second pair of legs by way of protestation in the way described above, but, as I never succeeded in seeing them alighting on the plant and actually becoming incapable of flight, or, on the other hand, regaining their power of flight when removed from the plant, it seems pretty certain that they were either benumbed with cold or suffering from starvation.

On Sept. 3rd, 1893, at two o'clock in the afternoon, I was again botanizing on the Orme. It was exceedingly sunny and warm, and many humble-bees were busily searching the flowers of Centaurea Scabiusa for honey. On a large plant of this species there were six helpless bees. I remained here an hour, but failed to observe one of the many bees visiting the plant actually becoming helpless, nor did I see any of the helpless ones recovering so as to be able to fly away. It seems then unlikely that these were intoxicated, and yet


ou any other hypothesis it is difficult to see why they should con- gregate on the particular species of plant which had been observed to produce intoxication.

Undoubted instances of intoxication were not seen until the following summer (1891). Ou Aug, 18th, an exceedingly warm and sunny day, I was at Abersoch, in iS. Carnarvonshire. A number of humble-bees were observed showing the usnal symptoms of intoxi- cation after visiting the flowers of Carduus lanceolatus and of Centaurea Scabiosa. By far the largest number, however, were seen on Canlnus nutans. Several of the intoxicated bees were taken off the fiower- heads and imprisoned in small boxes ; they were released after intervals of five to fifteen minutes. In every instance they had perfectly regained their power of flight and made their way straight to other plants of Carduus nutans.

It may be well to state that all the above observations were carefully entered in a notebook ou the spot. I have been told that the hive-bee often gets intoxicated, but I failed to obtain any trust- worthy accounts of the phenomenon from those who professed to have seen it. I have also been unable to find any published accounts of it, and this note is written chiefly for the purpose of eliciting further information on the subject.

The following would seem to be a fair summary of the facts and of deductions to be drawn from them :

(1) That at certain seasons the honey of some capitulate plants contains a deleterious substance which produces an intoxicating effect on the bees visiting the flowers.

(2j That the phenomenon must materially assist in producing cross-fertilization of those flowers.

(3) That this is not a normal arrangement for producing cross- fertilization. It is conceivable, however, that in the course of time the success of the arrangement might cause it to become normal.

It may be suggested that the curious effect of the honey may be due to fermentation consequent on the attack of some fungus. It is highly desirable that the honey should be carefully examined, in order to find the nature of the change and of the agent producing it.

ISLE OF MAN PLANTS. By W. p. Hiern, M.A.


At the suggestion of some of the foreign botanists who joined last September the Botanical section of the excursion to the island, in connection with the Liverpool Meeting of the British Association, I give a list of the determined plants which were noticed as wild by the party. The advanced period of the season, the stormy, rough, and rainy weather, and the rapid movement of the excursion were all unfavourable for obtaining a good supply of specimens. The determination of the parasitic fungi and of some few other plants has been kindly forwarded by Prof. P. Magnus, of Berlin, who was



a very useful member of the party. The leaders were Prof. F. E. Weiss, of Manchester, and the Eev. S. A. P. Kermode, of the Isle of Mau ; and the program was as follows : Thursday, Sept. 24th : Mr. Okell's garden near Douglas ; by rail to Port Erin. Friday, 25th : drive by the Eound Table to Niarbyl Point, Glen Meaye, and Peel, and back by Foxdale to Port Erin. Saturday, 2Gth : by rail to Castletown and back ; walk to Meayll Hill and Chasms, and back

to Port Erin. Sunday, 27th : . Monday, 28th : by rail to

Douglas ; drive to Laxey, thence by electric rail part way up Snae- fell ; drive to Tholt-y-Will, down glen, through Curraghs to Balla- moar, Jurby, and Ballaugh Station ; thence by rail to Douglas. As most of the flowering plants are very common, it seems un- necessary to add definite localities for them.

I}a)nmculus Drouctii F. Schultz (form approaching 77. tricho- phyllus Choix). R. hederaceus L. (forma hedercc-

foUa). R. Flammula L. R. acris L. R. repens L. Papaver hyhridum L. Fumaria coufusa Jord. F. muralis Sond. Cheiranthus Cheiri L. Rorippa Xasturtinm Kusby {Xa-

sturtium officinale Br.). Cardamine pratensis L. Sisymbrium, officinale Scop. Brassica Sinapistrum Boiss. B. alba Boiss.

Cocldearia officinalis L. Lepidium hirtum Sm. Bursa pastoris Weber.

Viola palustris L.

V. sylvestris Lam.

V. tricolor L. a. pratensis. ,, fl. arvensis.

Polygala vulgaris L., var. minuti- Jiora Gren. & Godr.

Silene maritima With.

Lychnis Flos-cuculi L.

L. dioica L.

Sagina procumbens L.

Stellaria media Cyr.

Cerastium glomeratuvi Thuill.

C. triviale Link.

Buda marina Dumort.

B. rupestris F. J. Hanb.

Spergula arvensis L.

Malva iylvestris L. Lavatera arborea L. Hypericum Androsccmum L. H. humifusum L. H. pulchrum. L. H. Elodes Huds. Acer Pseudo-platanus L. Geranium molle L. Erodium moschatum L'Herit. Fj. maritimnm L'Herit. Oxalis Acetosella L. Linum catharticum L.

Ulex europaus L.

U. Gallii Planch.

,, var. humilis Planch.

Cytisiis scoparius Link. Medicago lupulina L.

Trifolium pratense L.

T. repens L.

T. dubium Sibth. (T. miyius Sm.

Lotus corniculatus L.

L. nliginosus Schkuhr.

Vicia hirsuta S. F. Gray.

V. sepiitm L.

V. sativa L.

Lathyrus pratensis L.

Ornithopus perpusillus L.

Prunus spinosa L.

P. insititia L.

SSpiraa Ulmaria L.

Potentilla Anserina L.

P. reptans L.

P. silvestris Neck.

P. Fragariastrum Ehrli.

Ruhus hlcBUs L.

R. pidcherrimus Neumann.

R. corylifolius Sm.



it., (prob.) Sehueri Lindeb.

R. ulmi/oUiis Willd.

Rosa spinosissima L.

R. tomentosa Sm.

R. canina L.

Cratcpgus CKvijacantha L.

Pyrus Aucuparia Ehrh.

P. rotundifulia 1 Bechst.

Lythnun Salicaria L.

Epilohium muntnnum L.

E. tetragonum L.

Sedum angliciun Huds.

Sempervivum tectorum L.

Cotyledon Umbilicus L.

ChrysQsplenium oppositifolium L.

Hydrocotyle vulgaris L.

Apium nodifiorum Keichb. f.

Carum Petfoselimim Btli. & Hk. f.

CEiuinthe crocata L.

Angelica sylvestris L.

Heracleum Sphondylium L.

Daiicus C a rota L.

D. guinmifer Lam.

Conium maculatum L.

Smyrnium Olusatrum L.

Hedera Helix L.

Sambucus nigra L.

Lonicera Periclymenum L.

Sherardia arvensis L.

Galium Ajmrine L.

G^. verum L.

G^. sa.vatile L.

Centranthus ruber DC.

Valeriana sambucifolia Willd.

Scahiosa arvensis L.

<S. succisa L.

Petasites officinalis Moencli.

P. fragrans Presl.

Tussilago Farfara L.

Bell is perennis L.

Solidago Virgaurea L.

Gnaplialium nliginosum L.

(7. sylvaticum L.

Achillea Ptarmica L.

^. Millefolium L.

Matricaria inodora L.

,, ^. salina Bab.

Chrysanthemum segetum L. Artemisia vulgaris L. Senecio vulgaris L. <S'. Jacobcea L.

Arctium ma jus Bernh. Centaurea nigra L. Cnicus lanceolatus Willd. C. arvensis Hoffm. (7. palustris Willd. JLapsana communis L. Hypochceris radicata L. Taraxacum officinale Weber. Sonchus oleraceus L. iS. asjjer Hoffm. *S'. arvensis L. Hieracium Pilosella L. Jasione montana L. Campamda rotundifolia L. Calluna Erica DC. Erica Tetralix L. £*. cinerea L. Vaccinium Myrtillus L. I^^.i' Aquifolium L. Ligustrum vulgare L. Fraxinus excelsior L. Volvulus sepium Junger. Myosutis caspitosa F. Schultz. iV. arvensis (Lehm.j Lam. Holanum Dulcamara L. Digitalis purpurea L. Linaria vulgaris Mill. Scrophularia nodosa L. Pedicularis sylvatica L. Euphrasia officinalis L. Bartsia Odontites Huds. Veronica Beccabunga L. F. Chamadrys L. F. serpyllifulia L. F. agrestis L. F. polita Fries. F. Tournefortii Gmel. Mentha aquatica L. Thymus Serpyllum Fr. Prunella vulgaris L. Nepeta Glechoma Bentb. Lamium purpureum L. Galeopsis Tetrahit L. Stachys palustris L. ;S. arvensis L. Teucrium Scorodonia L. Primula acaidis L. Lysimachia neDwrum Ij. Glaux maritima L. Anagallis ((rvensis L. J. tenclla L.



Samoliis Valerandi L.

Armena maritima Willd.

Plantago Coronopiis L.

P. maritbua L.

P. lanceolata L.

P. major L.

Chenopodinm album L.

(7. ruhrum L.

P('i(f maritiiiia L.

Atriplex patula L., c. am/ustifulia

(Sm.). . J. deltoidea Bab., /3. salina Bab. PiUmex obtusifolins L. i?. Acetosa L. 1?. Acetosella L. Polygonum Persicaria L. P. avicidare L. Euphorbia Helioscopia L. £". Peplus L. Callitriclie ver)ta L. Urtlca wens L. [/. dioica L. Hiumdtis Lupulus L. Ulmus montana Stokes. Salix fragilis L. >S'. «iia L.

6'. purpurea L. (cult.). /S'. Smithiana Willd. (cult.). 5. cinerea L. >S'. Caprea L. Bctida alba L. Alnus f/liitinosa Medik. Fayiis sylvatica L. Castanea saliva Mill. Quercus Fiobur L. Corylus Avellana L. 7r/s Psendacorus L. Alisma Plantayo L. .4. ramincaloides L. Scilla festalis Salisb. Narthecium Ossifrafium Huds. Junciis maritimus Lam. tT". efusus Li. J. conglomeratus L. J. acutifiorus Ebrli. J. lampocarpus Elirh. X squarrosus L. J", bufonius L. Luzxda maxima DC. Sparganium minimum Fr.

Arum maculatum L.

Lemna minor L.

Potamogeton polygonifolius Pour.

P. pectinatus L.

Scirpus lacustris L.

/S. cernuus Vahl, Enum. ii. 245 (1806); S. /Sflm Sebast. & Mauri, F/. Jilo??!. Pro(//-. 22 (1818), var. monostachys Syme.

Isoh'pis pygnura Kuutli.

Eriophorum polystachyum L.

Carex flacca Scbreb.

Phalaris canariensis L.

Nardus stricta L.

Phragmites communis Trin.

Agrostis vulgaris With.

^. rt/kf L.

Holcus lanatus L.

H. mollis L.

^-l/rrt caryopliyllea L.

^. pracox L.

Arrhenatherum avenaceum P. Beau v., /3. J. bxdbosum. Lindl. b. nodosum Eeiebb.

Sieglingia decumbens Bernli.

Cynosurus cristatus L.

Port annua L.

P. pratensis L.

Dactylis glomerata L.

Festuca ovina L.

Serrafalcus racemosus Pari.

Brachypodium sylvaticum Beauv. Agrost. 101.

Triticum repens L.

Lolium perenne L.

Equisetum arvense L.

i?. limosum L.

Polypodiurn vulgare L.

Lastroia Filix-mas Presl.

L. dilatata Presl.

Athyrium Filix-fcemina Roth.

Lomaria Spicant Desv.

Pteris aquilina L.

Piccia glauca L.

Ascophylhwi nodosum Le Jolis.

Pellia epipliylla Corda.

P. calycina Nees.

Fegatella conica Corda.

Marchantia polymorpha L.


Pucclnia Malvacearum Mont. On ]\fah-a sylvestris, Eushen and

Castletown. P. Umbilici Guep. On Cotyledon Umbilicus, Eushen. P. Taraxaci Plowr. On Taraxacum officinale, Port Erin. P. CentaurecB Plowr. On Ccntaurea nigra, Port Erin. P. Hieracii Mart. On HypocJueris radicata, neighbourhood of Port

Erin. P. Smyrnii Corda. The fficidium on SiiiyrniuiH Olusatnuu , Glen

Meaye. P. Cirsii-lanceolali Schroet. On Cnicus lanceolatiis, Eushen. P. obscura Schroet. On, Litzula maxima, Glen Meaye. P. Eubif/o-vera (DC). Wint. On Triticum repens, Castletown. P. poarum Nielsen. On Poa, Port Erin ; the aecidium [/Ecidium,

Tiissilaginis Gmel.) on Tussilayo Farfara, Port Erin. Phragmidium violaceuiii (Schultz) Wint. (syn. P. asperum Wallr.).

On FiUbus sp., Port Erin. P. ejfusiim Auersw. On Pubus Idaus, Sulby Glen. Coleosporium Sonchi (Pers.) Wint. On So7ichus arvensis, Balla-

more. C. Tussilaginis (Pers.) Kalchbr. On Tussilago Farfara, Castle- town. C. Senecionis (Pers.) Fr. On S'enccio vulgaris, Castletown. C. Synantherarum Fr. On Petasites, Ballamore. C. Euphrasia (Schum.) Wint. On Euphrasia officinalis, Eound

Table. Melampsora Euphorbia Cast. On Euphorbia Peplus, Castletown. Uredo hypericorum DC. On Hi/pericam AndroscBmwn, Douglas. Exoascus betulinus (Eostr.) P. Magn. Had formed numerous

" Hexenbesen " (witches' brooms) on a Birch near Douglas. Podosphmra Oxyacanthce (DC.) De Bary. On Cratagus Oxyacantha,

Foxdale. Ovularia obliqua (Cooke) Oudem. On Pumex obtusifolius, Eushen. Ramidaria sambucina Sacc. On Sambucus nigra, Ballamore. E. gibba Fuckel. On Pununculus repens. Port Erin. Cladosporium graminum Corda. On Triticum repens, Castletown. Septoria Pnbi Westand. On Riibus sp., Port Erin. Phyllosticta maculiformis Sacc. On Castanea sativa. Glen Meaye. Darluca Filum Cast. In Puccinia Rubigo-vera (DC.) Wint. on

Triticum repens, Castletown ; and in P. obscura Schroet. on

Luzula maxima. Glen Meaye. Placosphceria graminis Sacc. & Eoum. On Holcus mollis, Sulby

Glen. Marsonia PotentillcB (Desm.) Fisch. On Potentilla Anserina, neigh- bourhood of Port Erin. Cladonia rangiferina Hoffm. Eound Table. Piamalina cuspidata (Ach.). Fleshwick Bay and Eound Table.



In a note on Thuidium recognitum Lindb. in the recently pub-